One of the oldest traditional Asian Medical texts, Shang-Han-Lun was originally called, Shang-Han-Za-Bing-Lun which dealt with treatments of infectious acute fever among with other various disorders. It is told that Wang Shu-he of Jin had separated the text into two pieces of Shang-Han and Za-Bing and named each Shang-Han-Lun and Jin-GiuTao-Lue. They include disease identification, examination of pulse by level, judging symptoms, treatments & prescriptions in 6 volumes of Tai-Yang, Yang-Ming, Shao-Yang, Tai-Yin, Shao-Yin, Jue-Yin. Shang-han Lun establishes the guideline of disease treatments and serves as the authoritative text at the clinical medicine field, with its systematically organized diagnoses and treatments on acute fever diseases. Shang-Han Lun, therefore, was very valuable in clinical practices and had a great influence on developments of clinical medicine over the time.


Dan-Xi-Xin-Fa was composed by the followers of medical doctor Zhu, Dan-Xi of Yuan Dynasty with Dan-Xi's research expriences. There are six volumes of medicine such as "Symptoms of 12 meridian," and it divided with 100 volumes of each depatmental symptoms. To describe symptoms, Dan-Xi's original statements were cited, followed with related field's discourse and demonstration by his pupil, Dai, Yuan-Li. In addition, formulae for treatments were recommended. There were analysis on disease name, origin, symptoms, and treatments in depth. Dan-Xi's "extra of Yang(Positive) and lack of Yin(Negative)" theory, and opinions to treat disease such as QiBloodPhlegmStagnation and profound experience were relatively reflected in Dan-Xi-Xin-Fa. This is the important literature of his to study miscellaneous internal diseases and treatments, and theories of Dan-Xi.


The original of Dan-Xi-Shou-Jing was published by Zhu, Dan-Xi, and the amended work was released by Wu, Shang-Mo, his pupil, in 1621. It is composed of three volumes, and they are total of 160 chapters. Mostly it differentiates symptoms according to Shang-Han and Jin-Kui, and demonstrates the outstanding example of treatments on distinctive symptoms about internal, external, gynecological, five sensory organic, and miscellaneous diseases and treatments.


It is well-known as work by Zhu, Dan-Xi in Yuan Dynasty; however, it is the reflection of Dan-Xi's theory that conveys the related excerption of Dan-Xi-Xin-Fa, Ge-Zhi-Yu-Lun, and others. It is composed of two volumes with total of 70 chapters on clinical symptoms of internal, external, gynecological, five sensory organic, and miscellaneous diseases and treatments. The order to describe a symptom is by diagnosis of pulse, cause of disease, conditions of illness, and treatments.


The 4 books are written either by the famous doctor, Zuh Zhen-heng himself or his students based on his study. Studying medicine simply by memorizing the herbal preparation procedure written in the past, applied directly to clinical treatments afterwards, was said to be a widespread practice at the time. Zhu Zhen-heng, claiming that out-dated medicine preparation methods cannot be applied to ever-increasing number of newly known diseases, established his own medical theories and wrote various prescriptions based on his rich clinical experiences. His hypothesis turned out to be a big influence to the modern Chinese medical study and prescriptions with reference to Zhu Zhen-heng's study can be found even on Dong-Ui-Bo-Gam which was published 200 years later in Chosun Korea. According to related documents, there are about 20 medical books known to be written by Zhu Zhen-heng and the above four are the ones that reflect his theory and clinical experiences better. It contains internal medicine, surgery, gynecology, pediatrics, and the others to provide disease analysis with depth. Especially, Dan-Xi-Xin-Fa is rated best at concentration and completeness of organization of Zhu Zhen-heng's hypothesis and clinical experiences.


Ophthalmology text that puts other popular medical texts together with reference to the author's 39 years of clinical experiences. It describes causes, symptoms, nature, and treatment methods of eye diseases including those of children. Shen-Shi-Yao-Han have eye diseases categorized into 108 groups with about 300 prescriptions for them, and also records cautions to be aware of before taking medicines, description on surgical therapies such as acupuncture. Even at a disadvantage of scarcity of ophthalmology-specialized texts at the time, this text has relatively detailed descriptions of symptoms and contains information on color blindness and other diseases that were unverified until then. Therefore, it is not difficult to assume that Shen-Shi-Yao-Han had a positive impact on the advancement of ophthalmology and is a good reference to clinical doctors and students. .

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